The device of the sauna in a private house: features and effects

 The device of the sauna in a private house: features and effects

Sauna can be equipped in a private house. This greatly increases the comfort of the home and its attractiveness for guests. Moreover, these works can be done by hand.

Features: how and what is equipped?

The main elements of such a sauna are important components.


Most often make a wooden frame, which is filled with insulating material and sheathed clapboard. As the insulating material is best to use stone wool. However, you need to consider that it is saturated with moisture, and therefore it must be protected with a waterproofing film. And you can also use foil film.It does not allow moisture and steam to pass through and does not allow condensation to form.

For wall cladding in a steam room, most often they choose aspen, linden, Canadian cedar, alder, and abashi. It is necessary to take into account the characteristics of each wood species. Aspen is moisture resistant and has healing properties. Lipa has an attractive appearance and a pleasant smell.

Alder has many shades, pleasant to the touch and has a low thermal conductivity. Its disadvantages include softness and, as a consequence, a tendency to pollution and deformation. Abashi is an African tree that also does not heat up strongly in the sauna, which reduces the risk of burns. Canadian cedar has a unique flavor. Pine wood also smells good, however, it is worth using it by doing the removal of resin. Remember, the complete removal of the resin is impossible, therefore, in the course of operation, tar spots will still appear.

In general, when choosing wood for wall cladding, be guided by personal preferences, sauna design and facilities.

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In saunas set gas, wood, electric furnaces. If you are setting up a sauna in the indoor area of ​​the house, then the latter option would be ideal.Such a sauna will be safe and easy to use. Temperature and humidity will be maintained automatically, there are emergency shutdown systems. To choose an electric stove in the sauna, you need to calculate its power. It is calculated as follows: one kilowatt of energy is required for one cubic meter. Often, electric ovens require a three-phase network.

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a door

Most often, preference is given to doors made of tempered glass. This door does not change the shape of the temperature difference, it is easy to wash. When installing the door it is important to ensure the tightness of its fit, so they use silicone filler.

It is worth paying attention to the door handle. It should be made of a material that will not get hot. This is especially important for the handle, which is located inside the steam room.

Elements of internal arrangement

These include benches, headrests, shelves - in a word, everything that a person contacts in a sauna. The main requirement for these items is that they must be made of wood with low thermal conductivity. It will save you from burns.


Various buckets, thermometers, lamps, devices for illumination - LED strips and everything that makes a stay in the sauna the most comfortable and cozy fall into this category.


Most often, speaking of the sauna, it is presented as a small room, the walls of which are covered with clapboard, there is a stone oven and benches. However, if financial opportunities allow, you can equip the whole complex, which will include a dressing room, a pool or a room with a shower, a gym with exercise equipment, a lounge, a billiard room. In general, everything is limited only by your imagination and finances. In this case, you need to make a plan or drawing.

When drafting a project, it is assumed that the steam room will be designed for several people, as a rule, from two to six. Of course, you can build a sauna, designed for one person, however, most likely, without a company of relatives and friends, her visit will lose its appeal.

When drawing up a sauna plan, a minimum amount for each person is assumed. As a rule, it is approximately three cubic meters. Thus, for a steam room designed for two people, three square meters is enough if the ceiling height is about two meters.

The most successful option is the size of 2x1.8 meters, because you can equip a sunbed near any wall. If the area of ​​the steam room more, make the L-shaped and U-shaped layout options. Regarding the seated lying places - it is customary to arrange two to one respectively. It is better not to do too large a room for a steam room, since in this case it will warm up for a long time, and it will take a lot of electricity to maintain the temperature.


The construction of the sauna begins with the finishing of the floor. The material for it may be the most diverse, but you should not focus on its heat capacity. The temperature below, at the level of the floor, is the lowest, and therefore the insulation of the floor does not affect the performance properties of the sauna.

Wood can be used as a material, but now it is increasingly used granite and artificial materials, such as tiles. The latter option is the most practical, since it does not require large material costs. Tiles for the floor can be a variety of sizes, colors and textures. The only requirement is that it be rough in order to avoid falls on the wet floor. It is best to glue the tile to glue, which is intended for laying tiles on top of a warm floor, as it is not afraid of temperature changes.

Well proved as a flooring material such as thermotree. It is well tolerated by the difference in temperature, has a rough surface, has a rich lasting color.

If you decide to make a wooden floor in a sauna, you must make the substrate or stone columns under the logs. They should be located at intervals of 400 millimeters. Boards for the floor must be well treated, with a thickness of at least forty millimeters. They are mounted on screws, leaving a small gap (two to three millimeters). The caps of the screws are hidden in the floor and closed with plugs.

Ceiling height

The standard is a height of 210 centimeters. This allows you to install standard doors, whose height is 190 centimeters. In addition, such a height of the ceiling is necessary to ensure normal air circulation. If it is larger, a hot draft will appear in the sauna, which can lead to severe burns.

Fire safety requirements

Building a sauna even at home is unacceptable without complying with such requirements:

  • if the sauna is in the basement, then the ventilation system must be provided;
  • when installing an electric or wood stove, you need to observe air gaps, as well as strictly maintain the distance to combustible surfaces;
  • the steam room must be partitioned off with refractory material, floor slabs and walls;
  • electrical appliances must be of high quality, serviceable, well insulated;
  • if you are planning to install an electric furnace, then it is better that it has the possibility of emergency shutdown in case of overheating.

Where can I arrange?

Before you begin construction work, you need to choose the best place for the sauna. It can be located both inside a private house, and be a separate building. A good option would be its placement in the bathroom, if it allows the footage. It will not be necessary to carry out the supply of communications, since there is already equipped with ventilation, plumbing and sewage. The floor is also usually covered with tiles. This will significantly save energy, money and time on the arrangement of the sauna.

However, the sauna can be placed in any other room. The only thing that needs to be foreseen is the possibility of equipment for ventilation and supplying communications.If the house has a basement floor, you can equip a sauna there. Arranging the sauna in the basement, pay special attention to the ventilation system, be sure to equip it with a hygrometer to be able to control the humidity in the room.

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Placing a sauna is also possible separately from a residential building. This will require significant costs for the development of the project for the construction of the building itself, however, there will be more opportunities regarding planning. Especially this option is good for those who decided to build a sauna in the country, which has access to a natural pond. For construction, you can use a wooden beam, stone. It is possible to purchase a finished log house.

But even if your possibilities are limited financially, or the size of the house does not allow to arrange a large steam room, you can always make a mini-sauna even in the smallest room, the main thing is to keep the minimum amount per person.

Recessed: dimensions

If you do not want to carry out work on the construction of the sauna, or the size of the house does not allow to get a steam room for a large company, you can purchase a ready-made mini-sauna. It is a cabin that is built into the bathroom.The dimensions of the built-in saunas vary.

If the cabin is designed for one or two people, then it is equipped only with seating. More comfortable booths have more - 1.6x2 meters and 2x2 meters. The height inside these saunas is usually about two meters.

Inside, everything is equipped, as in a conventional sauna - a stove-heater, shelves and benches made of wood. The walls and ceiling consist of interior wood paneling, stone wool and exterior cladding.

But if you make a sauna with your own hands, and the room footage allows, you can make it bigger. Do not forget that about three cubic meters should fall on one person. If you equip a sauna for four people, its size should be 3x3 meters, for six of them - 4x5 meters.

The length from the door to the opposite wall must be at least two meters, and the optimum ceiling height is 2.1 meters. It is at such a height that a good air circulation and warming up of a person who is on the second tier is ensured. If the ceiling is higher, the air circulation will be disturbed and air will flow, which can cause severe burns.

Difference from the bath and visiting rules

Sauna and bath have a number of differences. In the first place - this is the temperature. In the sauna, the temperature is higher, it can reach 150 degrees Celsius and even more. Since the air temperature is high, the humidity in the sauna is small, usually about five to fifteen percent. The human body tolerates such heat in low humidity. In the bath all the way around. Humidity can be as high as seventy percent, while temperatures usually stay around ninety degrees.

The next difference will be the oven. Most often, saunas are equipped with electric ovens, on which stones lie on top. They warm up the steam room for a short time and keep the desired temperature for a long time. In the bath usually make massive stone stoves. She needs more time to warm up, but she keeps warm well, and thanks to her dry steam is formed. In such furnaces, the stones are usually inside, as a result of which heat is stored. In addition, in the bath, the stove is necessary for heating the boiler with water. In the sauna, she does not have such a function.

The third difference is that the pool is most often provided for in the sauna.Or in the extreme case of a shower. This allows you to alternate heat and cold. In the bath is not provided.

The fourth difference is in the materials used for construction. When building saunas, wood and various synthetic materials are used. During the construction of a classical bath, moss and felt were used for warming. Of course, nowadays, modern materials are also used, so this distinction gradually loses its relevance.

The next difference is the internal structure. The sauna consists of at least three parts: a steam room, a soap compartment and a dressing room. Additionally, a gym, lounge, billiard room can be provided. In general, what is enough fantasy. Bath, as a rule. consists of two parts: steam bath and locker room. In the bath they wash and steam in the same room. In the sauna in the steam room do not wash. Using a broom there is also meaningless, because at high temperatures and low humidity, it quickly crumbles. However, in the sauna it is good to use different aromatic additives, which often create not only a pleasant atmosphere, but also good for health.

The sixth difference is the interior design of the room. Sauna has a more expensive and beautiful decoration than a bath. In the latter, everything is as simple as possible.

Despite the enormous benefits of the sauna, visiting it has certain rules. In order not to harm health, they need to know and comply with:

  • In order to visit the sauna brought only pleasant emotions, need to prepare in advance. Snack something light, best suited vegetable or fruit salad, dairy products. Water can be consumed without restrictions, as this will remove slags and toxins from the body.
  • Before you go to the steam room, take a shower. It is better not to wet the head. Then the body should be properly wiped. It will be very useful if you make a foot bath.
  • Head better wear a hat made of felt or fleece. It will protect the head from overheating, and the hair from damage.
  • A long stay in the steam room will not bring health benefits. It is best to make several visits. Experienced bathers recommend three. The first call should last about ten minutes. Then it is best to take a shower, dry your body and drink tea or water. The second run lasts a little more, about fifteen minutes.After it is also necessary to take a shower, rest for about twenty minutes. The third call is done for twenty minutes. It is during this approach that it is recommended to be on the highest shelf.
  • If you decide to push water on the stones, then it should be a little. Steam is better to disperse with a towel. Favorably on the human body affects the use of essential oils in the sauna. Choose the oil you like, add it to the water and splash on the stones. Pleasant aroma and health benefits are guaranteed.
  • After you left the steam room, walk or sit, but do not stand. Sharp movements are also better not to do, otherwise there is a high probability of fainting.
  • In the steam room is not worth doing exercise and get involved in talking.
  • So that the sauna benefits health, need to visit her regularly. However, men over 30 years old are not recommended to visit the steam room, since high temperatures may affect reproductive abilities. Women are not recommended to visit the sauna during menstruation.
  • Many women like to take various cosmetic masks with them to the sauna. Remember they must be applied not in the steam room, but in the intervals between visits.

If you follow these simple rules, a visit to the sauna will bring you only beauty and health.

Device types and effects

There are many types of saunas. Each of them has its own characteristics, pros and cons. After learning more about each of them, you can choose the best option for yourself.


Perhaps, is one of the most popular. Its feature is the alternation of hot steam and cold water. In a classical Finnish sauna, the air temperature is about 100-120 degrees, and the water temperature is about 40. The humidity is about 20 percent. Such a ratio of temperature and humidity leads to increased perspiration. The steam room is a room whose walls are decorated with wooden bars, and along them are benches and sun beds.

A mandatory attribute of the Finnish sauna is a swimming pool or at most a shower. This is necessary to achieve the effect of alternating hot air and cool water. Steam and space heating is ensured by the fact that water is poured onto a hot stone hill.

The great advantage of the Finnish sauna is that when you visit it, the body gets rid of toxins and toxins. In a person who is in the steam room, the blood flow accelerates and sweating increases. Many athletes after training prefer to visit this sauna, because in it the muscles recover faster.

In addition, hot steam, which is present in the steam room, is very useful for mucous membranes. The high temperature, which is inherent in this type of sauna, strengthens the immune system and has an effect on the acceleration of metabolism in the body. The Finnish sauna has a beneficial effect on the skin, accelerating its renewal and cleansing. It brings great benefits to the cardiovascular system, strengthening the walls of blood vessels. Despite all this, it is best to consult with your doctor before visiting the Finnish sauna.

With hammam

This is a traditional Turkish bath. It has a number of features. The temperature of the air in a sauna is not more than 50 degrees. At the same time the humidity is maintained at 100 percent. There is no stove with stones on which give in water. The walls, sun beds and the floor are heated evenly thanks to the hot water pipes that run under them.For steam use steam generators. All surfaces in such a bath are made of stone and tile. Traditionally they were made of marble. The design is carried out in oriental style. The uniform and mild heat that spreads from all surfaces in the hammam warms the whole body pleasantly.

This sauna is ideal for those who find it difficult to withstand the heat of the Finnish steam room. In the Turkish bath, you first need to warm up on a stone lounger for about 15-20 minutes. During this time, the pores will begin to open and the natural cleansing procedure will begin. At the same time have a good skin peeling. Perform it with a mitten made of camel wool.

The following procedure is soap massage. Foam is whipped in a large bag and applied to the body. Soap is best to use natural, made on the basis of vegetable oils. This is followed by a relaxing massage. After all this, you can relax in a cool room, drink tea. After the body cools down and gets the usual temperature, you can go out.

Sauna with hammam is very useful for those people who suffer from diseases of the respiratory system.Thanks to wet steam, it becomes possible to heal even chronic tonsillitis, bronchitis, rhinitis, laryngitis. Well Turkish bath affects those who suffer from pain in the joints and muscles caused by arthrosis, rheumatism, arthritis. The beneficial effect of such a sauna on people suffering from insomnia, depression, and stress is well known. In the sauna with a hammam you can cope with problems on the skin, because the pores are well cleaned. In addition, if you are overweight, then the Turkish bath is for you. Air temperature and massage can correct figure flaws. It is worth remembering that before visiting such a sauna is also better to consult a doctor.


This type of sauna is becoming more and more popular. It is a small cabin, the walls of which are mounted infrared emitters. Typically, these saunas are small in size, designed for one or two people. Warming up the body here occurs under the influence of infrared waves. The air in the cabin itself does not get very hot, the temperature is about 50-60 degrees. If you do not like a hot bath, then this option is for you. Infrared waves penetrate rather deeply into the body by about four centimeters and heat it better than other types of saunas.

The benefit of such a sauna is that it reduces cholesterol, speeds up metabolism, removes excess fluid from the body, improves immunity, improves skin condition, helps in the fight against cellulite. Despite all the positive aspects, before visiting the infrared sauna is better to consult with your doctor.

In addition to these, there are other types of saunas, for example, Japanese sauna. It is a barrel under which the furnace is located. The water in such a sauna is heated to 50 degrees, and various herbs and sawdust are added to it. The advantage of the Japanese sauna is its mobility.

Who is contraindicated?

It is forbidden to visit the steam room for people who have inflammatory diseases of internal organs, tuberculosis, problems with blood vessels and the cardiovascular system, any diseases during the exacerbation, diabetes mellitus. In addition, it is better not to attend a steam room in the presence of malignant and benign tumors. If there was a history of traumatic brain injury, myocardial infarction, stroke, the sauna is possible only with the permission of the doctor.

In addition, it is forbidden to visit the sauna while intoxicated or under the influence of drugs. Such conditions affect the functioning of the heart, pressure decreases and perspiration is disturbed. In this regard, increases the likelihood of skin burns.

It is better for women during the critical days to refrain from visiting the sauna, since high temperatures can increase blood loss. It is also better for women during lactation not to go to the sauna, since the harmful substances excreted from the sweat can get into breast milk.

High temperatures affect spermatogenesis, this should be taken into account for men of reproductive age. People over the age of 60 should be wary of going to the sauna, especially if such trips are irregular. Sudden temperature drops adversely affect the vessels.

It is forbidden to visit the sauna for pregnant women for up to 13 weeks, as high temperatures may adversely affect the fetus. In the second and third trimester visits to the sauna are allowed only with the permission of the gynecologist.


To make your sauna the best and delight you with its functionality and design, better follow the simple rules.

  • Before building a sauna, decide how many people it will be designed for;
  • based on the area of ​​the steam room, determine the type and capacity of the furnace;
  • plan where you will have sun beds and benches, and remember that the distance from them to the stove should be at least one hundred centimeters;
  • plan how water supply, sewerage, electricity will be brought;
  • consider the location of the locker room, lounge, shower or pool;
  • make a drawing;
  • decide on the types of material and its quantity;
  • start building your dream sauna.


People who have a sauna in a private house generally speak positively of it. They note the convenience and ease of use, health benefits, the possibility of carrying out spa procedures at home.

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Among the shortcomings, there is an increased risk of fire danger, an increase in electricity bills and amounts for home insurance. And many also note that it is necessary to carefully work out the sauna plan and pay particular attention to the insulation and the ventilation system,so that in the future there will be no problems associated with the appearance of mold and mildew.

In this video you will find the implementation of a sauna project in a private house.

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