Concrete floor in the garage: the subtleties of pouring coating
When building a garage, it is important to take care of all the nuances and important details. In addition to strong walls and a solid roof, the most important element of the garage is the floor. If it is too thin and fragile, then under the weight of the car it deforms and loses its qualities very quickly, therefore it is very important to be able to correctly pour the concrete floor in this room.
In order to make a reliable and durable floor in the garage, it is important to choose a material that will meet all the stated requirements, in addition, it must also be moisture resistant. Concrete is considered the best option for this. It is the concrete floor in the garage that is most often used because it is easy to work with it, and the result exceeds all expectations.
To pour such a coating, it is important to prepare the surface, for which you need to remove the entire topsoil. This is done in orderto minimize soil subsidence, get rid of excess microorganisms, because it is in this layer that lives too much, and clean soil almost does not contain them. Work on the creation of the floor for the garage will consist of several stages:
- preparation of the basis for works;
- determination of the zero level;
- determination of the optimum thickness of the concrete layer;
- laying a pillow under the concrete;
- laying damping tape;
- hydro and heat insulation of the floor in the garage;
- surface reinforcement;
- lighthouses under the screed;
- pouring a layer of concrete.
The choice of concrete to cover the floor in the garage is not accidental, as this coating must withstand a lot of tests.
The fortress must guarantee the integrity of the surface even under the influence of a large mass of cars, resistance to crumbling and cracks, if something heavy or metal falls to the floor, resistance to various kinds of chemical agents, temperature changes, safety in case of fire. Concrete floor allows you to quickly and easily get out in the garageand a long service life will not worry about replacing this element of the garage.
What should be the thickness of the fill?
To create a strong concrete floor, it is important to dig out a pit of suitable depth and correctly place all layers in it under the main floor. The bottom layer should be the ground, which, because of its location, will be well compacted, rubble is poured on top of it. The size of this layer can vary from eight to twenty centimeters, it depends on the area of the garage, and the size and weight of the car. After that, a layer of sand is poured, which can be 5-10 cm thick. The last concrete poured.
If there is one car in the garage, then the optimum thickness of concrete is 10 cm, for a heavy car or two cars in one garage, it is better to increase the thickness to 15 cm. On this basis, a floor preparation pit must be dug at least 25 centimeters deep. If additional coverage is planned over concrete, then this also needs to be calculated during the laying of the pit.
The simplest option for processing concrete for more comfortable use, cleaning and high strength are impregnations.
Polymer formulations may include various components, because it is important to know what and in what case should be used.Thanks to this impregnation, the strength of concrete is increased several times, in addition, it helps to better tolerate a large temperature difference and resists the appearance of dust.
There are three options for such impregnations:
- Polyurethane impregnation contributes to waterproofing. In addition, when mixed with sand, it can be used to get rid of cracks and chips.
- Water dispersion The mixture helps to strengthen the surface of the concrete and prevents the appearance of dust on the surface.
- Epoxy impregnation has a two-component structure and performs a waterproofing role. Prepare such a composition should be immediately before application.
You can open the concrete with paint, a rubber coating helps to strengthen the waterproofing, and adds durability. The floor with this paint is convenient and easy to clean, you can use alkaline detergents. Among the shortcomings, it is possible to note that the coating is too even, which can become slippery in winter time, which is traumatic. So that the machine does not spoil the rubber coating, slipping at the start or arrival, it is better to put rubber bands under the wheels, which will allow you to save floors for a long time.
In order to make a pit for the future floor, it is necessary to prepare a shovel and a trolley for transporting land from the inside of the garage beyond it. If you need to quickly make the deepening or maximize it, then the best solution would be to call an excavator. Any layer that will be the basis for the floor must be properly and flatly tamped, which requires a rammer manual or mechanical type.
When preparing the base for the floor covering, you need to have a regular or laser level, a tape measure, pegs and a string and a pencil. For drawing marking marks zero. Each layer assumes the presence of auxiliary tools that must be prepared in advance. When everything is ready, you can begin work.
The first step is digging a hole, which will serve as the foundation for the concrete floor, if there was already something in the garage, then the first step will be to dismantle the old surface and prepare the soil for the new one. If an inspection pit is planned in the garage, then a significant recess is dug in the center of the room where the metal box is placed. Then it is sheathed with wood.
The surface of the soil after the tamping should be heat and sound insulated, which is achieved thanks to the expanded polystyrene. It is important to make a formwork so that the floor does not come into contact with the walls of the garage, otherwise it will negatively affect the strength of the structure as a whole. The height of the tape is set so that it is equal to the height of the future floor or was slightly higher, and after the work is completed, all the excess is cut off with a knife.
Near the viewing pit you need to lay wires for lighting and sockets, which are placed in a special tube. She is not afraid of external influence, so the electrician will be safe.
Before pouring new layers for concrete pavement onto the ground, you need to carefully remove the base so that there are no debris, plants or any other foreign objects on it. Only after this is the tamping of the bottom of the pit. When this stage is completed, the future floor is marked, the height of each layer is calculated.
It is necessary to mark each layer with a marker or pencil so that it can be clearly seen. In addition, it is important to place the pegs in each corner and in the middle of the narrow wall of the garage. On them the thread of a certain height is stretched so that the height of the layer is precisely aligned.
Crushed stone - the first layer that is poured on the ground - has a dense structure and allows you to steadily hold the remaining elements of the floor. When crushed stone is compacted, a layer of sand is poured, which is also subject to tamping. To check how well the work was done, you need to walk on the sand. If there are deep traces of the shoes, then re-tamping is necessary, if they are shallow, then work can be continued.
The next step will be heat and waterproofing, for which a special insulation coating is laid on the floor and put on the walls with a large margin. Concrete will be poured in from above, and when it dries, the extra elements need to be trimmed. Before the concrete is poured, it is better to reinforce the floor to make the construction more robust. For this, a special wire is suitable, from which a grate with a 15 cm cage is laid out.
It is very important to raise this structure above the surface of the waterproofing layer by at least 5 mm so that the metal is in the middle of the concrete layer, and not under it. Only this can give the desired effect.
The last step of the repair will be the pouring of concrete, which is carried out according to the beacons purchased or prepared in advance. The floor is leveled with a long and flat board, which has the name “rule”.A day later, the lighthouses are taken out, in their place the remains of the solution are poured and leveled. After that, the whole week you need to irrigate the floor with water so that it will properly freeze. It is better to keep the doors permanently closed, and on a concrete surface that dries, you need to spread burlap or film.
Subtleties of the process
In the process of pouring the floor of the garage room with concrete, the necessary procedure will be the selection of the brand of this material. The best for this kind of work is M250., which has good strength and strength, as well as durability. Making the solution with your own hands will be difficult, so it’s best to rent a concrete mixer. Concreting is a complex process that cannot be managed alone, so it is desirable to have several assistants. Their work in the first place will be the addition of concrete to the machine so that the amount of mortar is at a stable level and enters the prepared garage base.
If it is not possible to find assistants, you can work alone, but you will not be able to concrete the floor right away, since the work will be done in parts. The disadvantage of this option may be cracks, which appear due to non-uniform floor covering.
It is important to level the surface only by beacons., pouring it in a solid or in parts. It is not necessary to buy ready-made designs, you can use everything that is at hand, the main thing is that the object should be even and long. They are set on the mark on the wall, which serves as a guide for the future height of the concrete floor.
The placement of lighthouses goes from the wall, remote from the entrance to the garage and to the gate itself. It is important to install them on such a width so that the rule is 30 cm longer. This helps avoid buckling and irregularities in the alignment. The installation of the first beacon should be 30 cm, all the rest are already placed depending on the length of the rule.
If a concrete mixer is used, and the concrete enters the garage through a special channel, then pour it not from the edge, but into the middle of the room, and level out from there. Due to the presence of the screed, the concrete floor will be durable and will sustain any weight.
In addition to internal strength and reliability, you can take care of the upper layer, which may have the appearance of cement or be painted. Properly selected materials in this case will help to achieve the desired result. Applying polyurethane impregnation will help strengthen the waterproofing of the floor.Water dispersion impregnation helps to remove dust from the floor and further strengthen it. It is possible to strengthen the floors in the garage only after they are completely dry, otherwise there will be no effect.
It is important to clearly understand what needs to be added to the concrete floor for ease of use.
This will give the opportunity to choose the desired impregnation option and the mixture for painting the floor just made. Painting the floor bears the decorative load, because the coating is smooth and attractive, and not only serves as a surface hardener.
To get a reliable and beautiful garage, it is important to take care of a good foundation for the floor, fill up all the necessary layers, and then use the main material. Concrete the floor in the garage thoroughly, because it is from him that the convenience of using the room, the safety of the car and everyone who enters it will depend.
Hydro and thermal insulation
While working on the floor for the garage, a very important aspect is good hydro and thermal insulation, which is associated with the detrimental effects of moisture on the car and other elements that will be in the room for a long time.When the insulating layer is not used, the moisture leaves the concrete in the sand, after drying, the top layer becomes less durable and after some time under the influence of loads begins to crumble. Groundwater, rising up, negatively affect the microclimate in the garage, which should not be allowed.
For waterproofing on a layer of sand, you must put a thick film of 250 microns or more, it can be reinforced. For conditions with high groundwater, it is important to use the thickest waterproofing possible. Cloths are superimposed one on another with an overlap of at least fifteen centimeters, and sealed with double-sided tape. It is important to get waterproofing on the wall above the level of the damper tape.
Thermal insulation can be installed both during the work with the floor, and after their completion. It is best to do everything at once, laying it in parts on the waterproofing layer, and on top will be laying reinforcing mesh and pouring concrete.
For insulation, the use of extruded polystyrene foam is recommended. Its density should be more than 35 kg / m3, it is resistant to loads, it does not allow water and steam to pass through.
If you refuse to use insulation, it will very soon be clear that there will be no comfort from being on the cold floor, in addition, it will negatively affect the condition of the car. When planning the arrangement of the garage, you should take care of complete comfort in the room, so that for many years you will not have any problems with it. It is important to consider the depth of the base if thermal insulation is used.
Tips and tricks
Different materials can be used to cover the floor in the garage, but only concrete has all the necessary properties that are needed for such a room. Convenience lies in the fact that the work on the arrangement of the floor can be done on their own, without resorting to the call of a special brigade.
Buying concrete, it is important not to make a mistake with the choice. It is best to buy concrete M 250, which is ideal for work on the manufacture of a garage floor. At the same time, you need to purchase a sufficient amount of rubble and sand. The sand must be clean, not contain unnatural elements, particles of clay rock or other debris. The size of rubble for such works is recommended medium or small.
During the installation of formwork, it is better to use spacers, otherwise under the weight of the mortar, the concrete mix acts on the boards and dries incorrectly, having an uneven shape.
If the floor is very dusty after the concrete has dried, then it is better to paint it so that the molecules are connected and do not fly apart on the sides, this will eliminate the excess dirt and make the floor stronger. There are several variants of such coatings, and each is intended for its own purpose. Choosing the right, you can get a good final result. It is not necessary to do such staining, although the floors with it last much longer, but the cost of such treatment is relatively high, and not everyone can afford it.
It is very important to have available all the necessary materials and a ready work plan so that you do not have to buy something in the process of concreting. The lack of necessary components will not only slow down the process, but may also cause undesirable results in the form of cracks or a less durable floor surface. Save on the device floor should not be, because it is the basis on which the entire contents of the garage.
If the solution is not mixed in a concrete mixer, it is better to buy concrete brand M400 or 500that mixes with clean sand and water. It is important to interfere so that there are no air bubbles in the finished solution. As soon as the main work is completed, it is necessary to process the top layer of the floor with the help of various additives. Properly chosen paint will make the floor not only beautiful, but also improve its characteristics.
For those garages where the cleaning of the car will take place inside or the room itself will be cleaned using a large amount of water, it is important to organize the slope of the floor covering in the direction of the drain and sewage, which are located on the street. This inclination is not noticeable, it makes from one to two percent difference.
Laying insulation, it is important to do it so that the vertical seam in one row does not coincide with that in the other, it will give the best insulation performance. In the process of pouring layers, it is better not to dilute the ready-made concrete solution with water., because the resulting texture after drying will not be so strong.
How to pour concrete floor in the garage, see the video below.