Warm beds in the greenhouse: step-by-step instructions for making
Greenhouse is a versatile design that allows you not only to grow seedlings and get an early and environmentally friendly crop of berries and vegetables, but also to grow the necessary crops in regions with adverse climatic conditions, cold summers and low temperatures. Before mounting the structure, it is necessary to choose the right place for the greenhouse, the material for its production, and also correctly position the vegetable beds. Warm beds - an innovative development that allows you to create optimal climatic conditions for growth, development and early fruiting of different types of vegetable crops.
The quality and quantity of the crop is influenced by the size of the beds, their shape and height, the correct location relative to the sun and the cardinal points.
Features and benefits
Warm beds in the greenhouse - a versatile design used for growing vegetables in adverse climatic conditions with the possibility of heating the fertile soil layer.
This design has a number of undeniable advantages:
- early sowing of seeds and transplanting;
- obtaining high yields in regions with different climatic conditions;
- the possibility of rational use of food waste;
- acceleration of the process of photosynthesis;
- protection of young plants from drafts and cold winds;
- the drainage of the nutrient layer and the prevention of moisture accumulation;
- the use of a fertile mixture appropriate to the crops grown;
- creating a favorable microclimate without sudden changes in temperature;
- processing and care of the area used only;
- performing agrotechnical works with minimal physical loads;
- high aesthetic characteristics of the design;
- long period of operation;
- possibility of mounting in different places of the garden plot.
- the need for continuous application of mineral and organic fertilizers;
- material costs;
- the need for competent installation of the structure;
- probability of reproduction of dangerous microorganisms in a warm and humid environment.
Varieties and methods of heating
Before installation of warm areas, you must carefully study the types of this design.
Experienced gardeners distinguish several basic types.
- French - mounted at ground level or raised to a small height. For the protection of fertile soil, you can use metal, wood, brick and stone. This design can be used to create decorative objects and flower beds.
- Pyramid - used for early harvest of berries and herbs. For the installation of construction using wooden containers of the required size and quantity, mounted on an iron pipe. Boxes must be filled with a nutrient mixture corresponding to the type of culture grown.
- Vertical - is used to optimally organize the greenhouse useful area. Used for growing all kinds of vegetables and berries.
- Terrace - mounted on areas with a rough surface. For each type of culture apply a separate terrace.
- According to Mitlayder - planting different types of crops in narrow boxes with fertile soil.The change of soil in containers is the main feature of this design, allowing not only to increase the amount of the crop, but also to avoid the appearance of weeds and various types of diseases.
To obtain a stable yield in the required amount in the spring or autumn, when the average daily temperature has low rates, professional gardeners advise the use of heated fertile plots. There are several ways to carry out this type of work.
Formation of the compost layer
Laying a compost pile up to 40 cm high at the bottom of a planned warm area consisting of several layers of organic waste.
The first layer is drainage, consisting of large branches, plant stems, wood waste. Its height should not be less than 25 cm. The function is a constant flow of air to the decomposable organic waste, water retention in sandy soil, creating favorable conditions for the development of the necessary microorganisms.
All subsequent layers consist of chopped grass, leaves, food waste, wetted, rammed and watered with a solution of urea.To speed up the process of decay and warm the mixture, it is necessary to cover the area with a film for 10 days. Only after a fixed period of time pour a fertile layer of earth about 30 cm high.
Disadvantages: the formation of a small amount of heat, acidification of organic waste due to insufficient oxygen supply through the top layer of soil. To increase the movement of air flow experienced gardeners recommend to reduce the volume of the top layer of soil. The total height of this bed is 1 m.
This method is based on the ability of manure to form heat when overheated. Pour wood sawdust up to 10 cm thick, 25 cm of manure into the prepared trench, pour plenty of warm water and cover with plastic wrap. A few days later pour a fertile peat or turf soil layer. After heating the upper layer, you can begin to perform agrotechnical work.
To maximize heat conservation, the area is covered with a film or a greenhouse is installed.
- obtaining the maximum temperature in the first agrotechnical season;
- impossibility of constant precise temperature control;
- the need for regular wetting the beds;
- annual replacement of the manure layer;
- the possibility of reuse of fertile soil in open areas of the garden.
- Installation of the artificial soil heating system is an innovative method for raising the temperature in warm beds.
Dignity - ease of use. Disadvantages - the involvement of professional builders and the high price range of the material and equipment used. Heat source - electric cable or water heating system.
Electrical equipment, heating tape and electrical cable are installed at a depth of at least 50 cm. At the bottom of the trench it is necessary to lay a layer of insulating material and cover it with a small layer of sand. Lay a heating cable with a step length of at least 20 cm on a sandy foundation. Cover electrical equipment with a layer of sand and a protective grid. Only after high-quality implementation of all stages of installation, it is possible to fill the fertile soil layer. To prevent rapid drying of the soil and temperature control, depending on the climatic and weather conditions, professional buildersadvised to install regulatory sensors. Cable heating method is used in industrial greenhouses.
To heat the plots with the help of a water heating system, special equipment should be installed around the greenhouse, consisting of a boiler, a pump, plastic pipes and a heat regulator. Pipes that supply hot water are placed on a sand cushion located at the bottom of the trench, and are poured with nutrient soil.
Feature - warming up not only the subsoil, but also the air in the greenhouse. In order to heat the water in the system, use natural gas or solid fuel.
To increase the speed of warming beds, experts advise to consider some features:
- optimum bed height should be no more than 50 cm;
- plots formed in artificial boxes have a maximum rate of warming up the soil;
- place the beds in sunny places with a minimum number of shaded areas;
- to equip beds with a width of no more than 50 cm;
- apply the arched construction of the greenhouse, having a maximum illumination and a high rate of warming the soil.
How to choose?
When choosing warm beds for film greenhouses or polycarbonate construction, it is necessary to take into account a number of factors. The main criterion is the size of the plots. The height of the warm beds is the main indicator that affects the temperature of the soil and the rate of its heating in early spring and in the autumn. When choosing the height of sections, it is necessary to take into account various factors.
It is necessary to take into account the type of soil.
- Exhausted and swampy - the optimal construction height is 50 cm, the installed box is suitable not only for tomatoes and cucumbers, but also for root crops. Dignity - high speed of heating the soil. The disadvantage is the need for frequent watering and wetting of the soil due to the rapid drying of the cultivated area.
- Unfertile - the height of the box is not more than 35 cm, it is obligatory to fill it with nutrient soil corresponding to the type of vegetable grown.
- Chernozem - the height of the structure should not exceed 15 cm, and the plants should be planted at ground level.
It is also important to consider the shape and size of the greenhouse design.
- With a gable roof - the most common type of construction designed to grow all types of vegetables, regardless of their height.In this greenhouse, two narrow beds are mounted on the sides for growing low-growing crops, in the center - wide. The size of plants in the central area should be 10 cm lower than the height of the structure.
- In the form of an arch - this type of construction has a smaller amount of usable area, a short time interval for heating the air, no snow cover on the roof surface, a high level of illumination. Such models of greenhouses are used in regions with difficult climatic conditions and a short light period. The size and number of beds, plant height depends on the area of the structure.
- Mitlider Greenhouse - a unique location of the sites, giving the opportunity for the full development of plants and the collection of high yield volumes. A special feature is the installation of boxes with a height of no more than 15 cm and a width of 40 cm. Planting is carried out in two rows, which makes it possible to fully care for the crops and provides the bushes with the necessary amount of sunlight.
The location of the cardinal points is also very important. For a quality warm-up and high illumination of the beds, experienced gardeners advise them to be located from the north to the south.This principle is suitable for all crops and greenhouse types.
When planning and planting plants, special attention should be paid to their height. Along the edges of the greenhouse have stunted crops, and in the central areas - tall. This method of plant placement will allow all areas to provide the maximum amount of light.
For the rational use of the territory of the greenhouse, special attention should be paid to the passages, which should not be very narrow or wide. The universal width of the tracks is 80 cm.
In order to make the choice of the heating method, it is necessary to carefully study the recommendations and feedback of specialists who will help you make the right choice.
How to do it yourself?
For independent production of warm beds in a greenhouse it is necessary to have a prepared scheme and an exact drawing of the planned structure. Calculation and device dimensions of the frame is carried out in strict accordance with the size and area of the greenhouse. The advice of experienced builders will help to correctly calculate and calculate the required dimensions.
For the manufacture of high-quality cottage design experts advise the use of step-by-step instructions:
- cutting the required number of parts of the appropriate size;
- processing of all parts of the structure with special solutions;
- frame assembly;
- marking the planned area in accordance with the dimensions in the drawing;
- the formation of earthen trenches (we do according to the available drawings);
- installation of the prepared frame.
Only after the high-quality execution of all construction and installation work, you can proceed to the installation of a heater with an electric sensor, filling the container with fertile soil mixture.
Tips and tricks
Novice gardeners should carefully consider the recommendations of experienced gardeners:
- the illumination of the beds should not be less than 7 hours per day;
- installation of a metal grid at the bottom of the planned site will protect plants from dangerous insects and rodents;
- sheets of paper and newspapers on the soil surface significantly reduce the number of weeds and slow down their growth;
- To extend the life of the wooden frame, it is necessary to process all its parts with special solutions that repel moisture.
The term of operation of warm beds with biological content is 5 years. This indicator should be considered when choosing planted crops. In the first year of operation, preference should be given to heat-loving crops with a high demand for nitrogenous substances. This group includes tomatoes, cucumbers, melons, peppers and zucchini. For the second year of cultivation, all the above-mentioned cultures will be suitable, except for melons.
For further use of warm areas it is necessary to pay special attention to the introduction of mineral and organic fertilizers.
To obtain an early harvest of different types of crops, it is necessary to carefully study the technology of using warm beds in the greenhouses of household plots. Experienced gardeners and builders will help to carry out the work in a short time with minimal financial investments. Only a competent and responsible approach to the task will provide an opportunity for long-term operation of the universal design of warm beds.
For how to make warm beds in a greenhouse, see the next video.